In conditions in which prepotent responses tend to dominate behavior, such as in drug addiction, where drug cues can elicit drug seeking Chapter 15 , or in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD; described below , significant negative consequences can result. Behavioral addiction is a treatable condition. Analyzing these genes in relation to genetics has helped geneticists understand how much of a role genes play in addiction.
Neurobiological state changes can produce unlearned fluctuations or even reversals in the ability of a previously learned reward cue to trigger motivation. Importantly, some studies have also correlated the epigenetic regulation induced by AMPH with the behavioral outcomes caused by this drug, suggesting therefore that epigenetics remodeling underlies the behavioral changes induced by AMPH. These studies employ an unbiased approach to finding genetic associations with specific phenotypes and give equal weight to all regions of DNA, including those with no ostensible relationship to drug metabolism or response. Family conflict and home management is also a cause for one to become engaged in drug or alcohol use. Therefore, both genetics and the environment contribute to an individual's vulnerability to become addicted following an initial exposure to drugs of abuse.